Excerpts

The Science of Physics


INTRODUCTION

Have you ever thought about that little voice that speaks to you constantly from deep inside your head?  Who is that?  Is it you?  Or is it someone you would like to be?  Is it ever turned off?  Do you remember when you first heard it talking to you, making plans for your current day’s activities, telling you how to think about yesterday’s activities, or helping you plan for tomorrow?  

When you were first born, you had no voice.  Your inner voice couldn’t really talk to you until you learned your native tongue, your language.  Until you picked up on words, you had to be thinking like a dog or a cat must think, with images, instead of words.  Did you ever think that you would always have that voice?  That somehow, your voice would never die?  When you finally do get old and pass away from this planet, does your voice go along with you?  

It’s the same thing as thinking about your favorite music.  Does music go away when you stop hearing it?  No, I don’t think so.  Music stays where it always hangs out because the next time you need it, it’s there again, just like your voice, waiting for you to listen to it.  The greatest music composers know this and that’s why they are able to tap this wonderful amazing form of energy and share it with the rest of us whenever they want.

So, you may want to ask - ‘Where does music hang out?’  You may want to know, ‘Where does that voice inside my head go, when I don’t need it?’  And, it’s OK to ask these questions and more questions like these as you go along in my book because in this book, we’re going to be studying this kind of thing, the scientific and spiritual laws of Physics because I believe that the Scientific explanation for things that we read about and learn about in school, in college, from other scientists and the spiritual explanations that we all feel sometimes and learn about in Church are actually the same thing.  

The stories and fables they teach us in Church, of course, are very primitive attempts to define what God would look or sound like, but too many times, these depictions of God are way off of any normal type of common sense.  The Bible Story in the opening chapters of The Bible, for example, where God tells Abraham to slit the throat of his own son just to see if he, Abraham, is truly faithful to God.  
This kind of thing, God would never tell any of us to do because there is no God in my mind that would be so insecure that he needed to find out if a single human being truly thought of him as the God of all Gods.  It’s preposterous and shameful that many millions of people over the years have put their faith in this kind of nonsense.  

But, even when confronted with the Church dogma from this and other badly chosen fairy tales, I still believe, have always believed, and will always believe that there is a God somewhere out there in the Cosmos and I base this faith and trust in this truth, not from silly horse nonsense that others have put down on the page, but from my own observations of the largest things in the universe, the stars and galaxies in the heavens, and from the smallest things in the universe, the sub-atomic particles, as well as from the events of my own life.

When I have become aware of the greatest scientific discoveries, things we take for granted today as Truth, I can easily see the hand of the Creator of these things.  None of the things that I will show you in this book could possibly have happened without an architect of the building blocks of the universe because the Creator’s finger prints and/or footprints are visible to the naked eye or to one’s ears or any of our other senses.

As one overwhelming and easily understood example of this let’s talk about the way that our home planet the Earth revolves around the Sun so that it always remains in what we have now called the Goldy-Locks Zone, the perfect distance, give or take a few miles, from which a planetary body like ours can get just enough heat, light and where water can exist as a liquid so that life becomes a distinct possibility, and not only a possibility but can be guaranteed a position in Space/Time that could last as long or longer than the sun itself.  

Some people, even today, will argue that this scientific fact is a mere random coincidence.  They will point to the billions of other planets that we are discovering all around our galaxy where the distance from the planet to their own star is too far and would therefore be too cold for life.  They would point to the other planets in our own solar system like Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, Pluto etc. where we find no life because these other planets are all either too close or too far from the Sun, and therefore, the Earth’s beneficial distance from the Sun is merely random chance, not a miracle that causes us to see the workings of a Creator in this Cosmic scheme of things.

But, it’s not just this one piece of evidence that informs my opinion on the subject.  There are countless other things about how the universe works for us as living beings that makes me tally up the score either FOR or AGAINST the argument that God exists and I have to say that so far, the score is ‘That God Exists’ =1,019 For and =2 Against.  That score is good enough for me.  The 2 bits of evidence that there is no God, I am going to save for the end of this book.  You can probably guess what they are because they are big ones, big arguments against there being a God and I wrestle with those two BIG ONES in my head quite often and mostly when I’m feeling the weight of these two on my own life.  But, in the final analysis, I usually put them down to the fact that we are judging these things from the wrong point of view and when we unite with our Creator, He or She, will make a point of explaining this little anomaly in the data to all of our satisfaction.  

Sadly, we all have Ego’s you see and this part of our Consciousness makes parts of the universe come in to our senses in a fog of some kind and some things are positioned in this blurring of life to look far more menacing to our Egos than they really are.  It’s hard to tell our Egos in these situations because that’s the part of our brain that they control and so we may not always be rational.  In fact, I know we’re not always rational and live in a highly subjective state of awareness part of the time.

To put an exclamation mark (!) on this type of idea, I am inserting here my favorite photograph and what I believe is the most important photograph ever taken.

It’s taken from our Space probe Voyager in 2012 as it left our Solar System, the first man-made object to ever do so.  I wonder how many of you can tell what this is all about.
         

As the Space Craft Voyager left our Solar System, Mission Director Carl Sagan had a signal sent to the space craft to turn around and snap one last photograph.  Not knowing what would come out of it, the NASA team waited several hours for the data that would be assembled into this picture above.

At first, they thought that the tiny white spec you see in the yellow beam of light in the Top-Middle of the picture was a grain of sand or an imperfection in the development of the photo.  One of the NASA people tried to wipe it off the page.  It wouldn’t budge.  So, it became clear after more thinking on the subject that the white dot in the Top-Middle of the picture is our own planet Earth, the originating point in Space from whence the little space craft was launched thirty-five years previously.

The finger of orangy-yellowish light that the Earth is floating in is merely that, a finger of light emanating from the Sun, about 90 million miles to the leftward orientation of this picture and very graciously pointing out for everyone to see just how small and insignificant a place our planet takes in support of all our words, deeds and actions.

A person can look at this photo very coldly and objectively and see only what is shown and make no major interpretations of this event other than the astounding fact that the equipment on board Voyager was still working in this completely hostile area in space and after so many years past everyone’s life expectancy of the intricate hardware involved.

Or a person can learn that this picture was never planned in all of the thousands of hours of designing the space craft’s mission.  They would have their hands full orienting the space craft to snap millions of photos of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the moons of Saturn, Uranus and Pluto as it flew past at about fifty-thousand miles per hour.   No one ever thought to turn the cameras back for one final shot from this distance where they knew that nothing would be there worthy enough to photograph.

In fact, it was merely the suggestion of one of Carl Sagan’s assistants to send one last command to the space ship to turn around and take a random photograph like this.  The brass at NASA had rejected the idea thinking that nothing could come of a very expensive, multi-million dollar maneuver.  And besides, they told Director Sagan, the project had been shut-down.  Everyone had gone home.  

Carl Sagan persisted however, because it just seemed like such a cool idea and eventually he was able to convince his bosses to call several project engineers back to their command offices at Jet Propulsion Labs and get to work to send one last signal to Voyager.

And so it was done.  It amazed everyone at JPL that Voyager still had enough juice in its batteries to not only listen to their signal but also to obey and turn itself around, focus it’s camera in the exact opposite orientation to where it was going and snap one last photo and transmit the data back to the Earth.

Whenever I assess all of these points of data, I come to the only conclusion that someone like myself, and I hope you too can make.  

The little Voyager space-craft had one last job to do.  It somehow made this known to its creators.  They took up the challenge and allowed Voyager to turn around and wave good-bye to us, the creatures who had made it, and in doing so, would memorialize us and point out to us exactly how rare and precious an element we are in the overall scheme of things.  

And if the Human Race goes extinct someday and no other living beings are able to contact us, they may someday bump into this little space craft that we constructed and now flying deep in inter-stellar space.  They will take it apart and learn how to play the music and videos that we placed on a golden record filled with images of our own lives and many of the life forms whom we are honored to share this planet with.  They will hear music from Bach, Beethoven, the Beatles and Chuck Berry.  They will see images of babies, flowers, exotic fish, animals running wild in the jungle, on the savanna, Eagles and other majestic birds flying high in the sky.  They will even be shown a map of how to find our planet.

When they arrive, they may find that we have destroyed everything here and that there are no wondrous animals and plants adorning this Earth.  There may be nothing but another burned out and lifeless planets left for them to see.

And if they are good creatures, they will memorialize us and maybe even feel sorry for us.  They will at least, from the records and data on board Voyager, know what we looked like, what we strived for most arduously, the kinds of things that made us happy and even how much we loved each other.  

                     
 But, they may never be able to fully understand how we lacked the ability to save ourselves.



*   *   *   *   *



Chapter One
- The Standard Model



The following graphic is a chart of all the major groupings of the known energies, forces and particles that make up our universe.  It’s called the ‘Standard Model’ of the smallest segments of the universe, the atomic and sub-atomic world and all of our latest evidence from extremely rigorous experimentation all over the world for centuries supports this model and makes it the greatest and most widely accepted standard of ‘Truth’ as far as we have the ability to know it.
                  

This is a chart of everything we know that makes up all parts of the ‘ATOM’.  We all remember our Elementary School Science teacher showing us the model of the Atom with at least one Proton and a Neutron making up the nucleus and the Electron making a spherical shaped orbit around the nucleus.  

The Top Left Box includes all of the known quarks, the smallest and most fundamental building blocks of every kind of matter that we know.  As you can see there are SIX of them. As far as our research has taken us so far, the Quarks are the smallest and most indivisible of all of the sub-atomic particles.  Two thousand years ago, the Greeks told us that the ‘Atoms’ would be the smallest and most indivisible object in the universe from which all things are composed.  But, as we know Science never sleeps and we now know or believe that Quarks take this role.

Protons are made out of these things called Quarks, at least three of them and sometimes hundreds of them that are floating around inside the Proton and their energy as they bump around in this tiniest of space is what makes up the ‘mass’ of the Proton.

The six Quarks are named:  ‘Up’, ‘Down’, ‘Charm’, ‘Strange’, ‘Top’ and ‘Bottom’.  Their names have no basis in anything other than a convenient way to label them.  You can think of the ‘Up’ Quark takes up a higher position within the Proton and the ‘Down’ Quark is usually sitting below the ‘Up’.  The rest of the names of the Quarks are usually stated as ‘Flavors’ even though no one has ever or will ever be able to taste anything this small.

Indeed, you may think of this explanation of the Physical world as ‘Strange’ and you would be right because one of the Quarks is indeed labeled as such, even though you could call them all ‘Strange’.

The bottom left box is filled with the Leptons. There are six different types of leptons. These include the Electron, the Muon, and Tau particles, as well as their associated neutrinos (i.e. electron neutrino, muon neutrino, and tau neutrino).  All Leptons have a negative charge and a distinct mass, whereas their neutrinos have a neutral charge.

We are most familiar with the activities of one Lepton, the Electron because we use ‘Electricity’ the flow of Electrons in our daily lives.  All Leptons have a negative charge and we’re familiar with that because if we’ve ever been ‘Shocked’ by touching an electrical cable, we have experienced this negative charge and what is the result of the flow of negatively charged electrons around and through our simplest and most complex circuitry.

You may even be reading these words through or over an ‘Electron’ connection between your own computer and the Internet of computers.  The Muons, the Tau Particles are probably capable of generating their own kind of electricity because Muons have a mass of .12 Gev (GigaElectronVolts) while Electrons have a mass of only 0.0005 Gev, making the Muons approximately 200 times more powerful (more mass = more energy) than the Electrons.  And, even more powerful, the Tau particles have a mass of 1.777 Gev or about 4,000 times more powerful than the Electron.  

This leads me to predict that someday, Humans may be able to use this type of sub-atomic energy and get thousands of times more energy out of this part of the universe than we are getting right now out of the Electron energies.  The only thing we have to wait for is the scientific knowledge to determine how to do that.  Somewhere there may be another Thomas Edison out there who is will be lucky enough to find a practical way to do it.  The point is, we know very little about this level of the universe after only discovering it for a few hundred years, but we’re getting there at a quickening pace.

The other interesting thing about Leptons is that they can change their flavor at will.  In other words, an Electron can decay into a Muon and a Muon can change into a Tau Particle. Protons can morph into Neutrons and Neutrons can morph into Protons.  It seems to this author that this tiniest realm or ‘Medium’ allows someone or something, like a great artist manipulate all of this stuff to suit his or her artistic whims and that this aspect of the universe is very much like the clay that a sculptor may use, or the paint that an artist may use or more accurately the musical notation that a great composer may use to depict his or her interpretation of the world.

Put another way, we have to wonder why we have all of these basic particles and laws of interaction when it appears that random chance (or not so random chance) can alter these particles by changing the rules at will?’  The universe, it seems to me is made up by the greatest Realist painter, because this artistry is how we achieve the ‘Reality’ we live in, rather than a complete and total random series of events.  

Stranger still, all of these subatomic particles also have an equal but opposite particle called ‘Anti-Matter’.  I have a previous book, Science Fiction, with the Title ‘Anti-Matter’ because it occurs to me that the universe we live in being controlled by the interaction of ‘Matter’ and ‘Anti-Matter’.  We simply don’t know much about Anti-Matter except that it does in fact exist and we can even create it in the laboratory.  But, sadly, whenever ‘Matter’ - any of these particles we’re discussing - comes into contact with a particle of the opposite universe, ‘Anti-Matter’, the two particles totally annihilate each other while giving off a small puff of energy in the form of photons.  In my previous work, I speculated on where all of this matter goes and what impact this reaction may have on the events in our lives.

The Plot Thickens:

The box on the right of these other two in the chart of the Standard Model above composes the known forces.  There only four main forces in the Universe and we are familiar with one of them - Gravity.  The other three:

Electro-magnetism (Electricity), and the Strong Force and the Weak Force.  The Strong Force is so-called because it is the strongest force we have discovered, but it plays its role only in the smallest of distances.  

The Strong Force is the force that holds the Protons together in a very tight concentrated ball in the middle or the ‘Nucleus’ of the atom.  You may also recall that Protons carry a positive charge and in most atoms there are more than one Proton sitting close to their friends.  But, if two charges are the same, they will repel one another.  And so the atoms would all explode apart and there would be no universe as we know it if it were not for the Strong Force that holds the protons together, overcoming their tendency to explosively break apart.  This is why it is called the ‘Strong Force’.  It is indeed very strong - thankfully.

The Weak Force is the force that is the opposite of the Strong Force.  It allows the sub-atomic particles to decay or change into something else.  It is the force that we have tamed in Nuclear Power plants because these machines gain their energy to generate power to our homes through the decay of the uranium atoms, mainly the neutrons. If it were not for the ‘Weak Force’ - oddly enough extremely powerful for our use - we would not get any power to power our homes and the Sun would not be able to keep us warm because the power of the sun emanates from the decay of Hydrogen atoms into Helium atoms.

Even weaker than the Weak Force, however, is Gravity.  And Gravity is not included in the Standard Model of sub-atomic or Quantum Physics because Gravity is so weak it has simply never been measured inside the Atom.  In other words, there is no evidence that any of the inter-actions within the atom are impacted by Gravity and therefore, it simply does not fit inside this generally accepted understanding, the Standard Model of the universe and it therefore - so far is kept apart.  

You may be old enough to remember how our Elementary School Science teachers told us that the Earth has a large mass and the Sun’s mass is even greater and so the Earth remains in its orbit around the Sun because of the attraction of the two masses, that of the Earth and that of the Sun for each other.  Unfortunately, that is no longer the Truest definition of this force.

Instead, today Gravity is better understood in terms of Einstein’s great theory of Relativity which we can all remember describes the universe in its largest of events out there in Space.  Sir Isaac Newton taught us that the interaction of all the planets and stars can be explained in terms of Gravitational attraction but Einstein amended this rule and has described this attraction of any two planetary bodies as a ‘Warp’ in the FABRIC of Space/Time.  This means that the Earth flies around in its orbit around the Sun because the Gravity of the Earth and the Sun working in tandem has created a groove in the fabric of Space/Time, the stuff that lies between the Earth and the Sun and the Earth merely falls into that groove.  The moon falls into a smaller groove in the fabric of Space/Time which is created by the two masses of the Earth and the Moon.

This means that there is another much larger groove in the fabric of Space/Time that is created by the mass of the entire galaxy in relation to the mass of the Sun, and so the Sun simply falls into this groove, carrying all of the planets with it, and makes its silent journey orbiting the center of our Milky Way Galaxy.

These grooves in the Fabric of Space/Time must exist everywhere in relationship to everything else because we know that even galaxies are lying inside a groove that will eventually cause them to crash into each other and then gradually blend seamlessly into a larger galaxy.

We also know that all of these things that I’ve described have been going on since the beginning of Time as far as we can measure it.

And now we come to the discussion of the little thing in the middle of the Chart of the Standard Model.

The God Particle:

Gravity is not included inside the Standard Model simply because no one - not even Einstein - has been able to connect Gravity to any of the sub-atomic forces or particles.  Einstein was not able to connect the dots merely because he was not able to think outside the box.  As brilliant a genius as he was in finding out that matter and energy are one in the same thing, he couldn’t complete the mathematical connection between the largest force in the universe with the smallest forces in the universe and the reason for this is that the forces in the universe are counter-intuitive.  

The largest or strongest force in the universe is The Strong Force, because it holds together the protons who want to fly apart and keeps them cemented together creating the nucleus of the atom.  But this strongest of forces only takes hold of things over the smallest distances in Space/Time.  The weakest of the four known forces - Gravity - takes hold over the largest areas of Space/Time.  And that - even though known to Einstein - never registered in his mind in the twisted sense of reality that it represents.

One of the strangest discoveries of my life was the day that I learned that Gravity waves can fly past the Earth from the opposite side of the universe.  We don’t have any instrumentation currently that can pick up on these gravity waves, but we know this happens because of a recent device being put into operation known as LIGO, the Large Interferometer Gravity wave Observatory.  This is the most sensitive instrument for observation of the heavens ever created and the minute they turned it on in 2015, it recorded gravity waves from 1.3 billion light years away.

Gravity waves from this distance are not going to make the tides go up or down.  They’re far too weak to make any changes to the Earth’s orbit around the sun or to any perceivable changes to any orbits of any planets in this or any solar system.  However, they are strong enough to stretch the fabric of Space/Time, even though less than a trillionth of a trillionth of a millimeter.  We now know, from LIGO and many other similar observations made by the several other LIGO’s that have been put into operation since - that even gravity waves from this far away have an impact on the Space/Time all around us.

But Albert Einstein, since he died in 1957 was never aware of any experiments that would give us a direct observation of gravity waves, which took place in 2015 and he was never aware of the proof that the Higg’s boson or The God Particle until the scientists at CERN discovered it in 2012.

Now, if you turn back to the first page of this chapter and look at the Chart of the Standard Model of sub-atomic physics, you see where I have notated ‘The God Particle’ in the middle of all the other known particles and forces.  It’s important to note that this particle was missing from this chart until 2012, when it was proven to exist.  And we now know that it is a central player, and even more so, a Keystone - literally - in the architecture of everything else.  Until that time, it had only been theorized to exist by several Physicists some 50 years previously, some of them, one a professor Peter Higgs of Scotland’s University of Edinburgh.  

The scientists at the time had all concluded that there had to be a particle that would carry the property of ‘mass’ all over the place and impose it upon all of the particles, since all of them, other than photons and gluons have enough mass for us to measure.  It was experimentation done by the Large Hadron Collider and announced to the world on July 4th 2012 that made the Higgs boson an official member of the Standard Model of all things and placed it - justifiably in the center of the model.  It took it’s rightful place in the center of the chart because without it none of the other particles can exist.

And this is why the Higgs boson achieves the nickname of the of ‘The God Particle’ because it would have to be the first particle that God created in order for the rest of the universe to evolve in the way that it has.  Since this name is extremely descriptive of the role that it plays in the universe, it is my contention that it will stick for thousands of years and not much longer be remembered as merely ‘The Higgs’ as most scientists want to do today.

Most scientists don’t like to use the word ‘God’ because the Creative Force that comes before all other known things in the universe cannot be tested and therefore cannot be proven to exist - and this is the essence of the Scientific Method to be sure, which I greatly respect.  

However, just because we cannot have a test for the existence of a creative force, doesn’t mean that it cannot exist.  In fact, to my way of thinking, the evidence is overwhelming that God exists and this is the nature of this book.  It’s a proof that I believe will stand the test of time - and therefore it will be tested and someday even proven if only in the minds of the vast majority of people on the Earth and/or elsewhere.  Just because a few Scientists are unable to accept this truth doesn’t mean that these few are right.  Sometimes when something walks like a duck - it’s a duck.

The next thing to know about the God Particle is how it gives mass to every other particle in the universe and how we know it is the messenger of God.

First of all, whenever you read about a particle in the field of Physics, you must remember that a particle at least at the sub-atomic level is really just a point in Space/Time.  It does not exist all by itself.  All sub-atomic particles exist in a kind of field of probability.  In other words, we can tell that electrons exists because we can actually see their impacts on the rest of the atom and we know how to manipulate them by using a magnetic field to send them down the wires and into your homes and offices.  So, all sub-atomic particles exist in a kind of flux, that is to say they are really a measurement of a particular place in Space/Time that is all part of a larger field.  So, electrons only exist because they are given their existence, their mass, by the God Particle Field, or the Higgs Field.  

So, the God Particle Field is everywhere that we can see as part of our universe.  How do we know that?  Because everywhere we look in the universe we see the same stuff of electrons, protons, neutrons, quarks, etc.  And we know now, since the discovery of the God Particle Field that everything has to receive its mass from the God Particle Field.  But, how does it happen?  It’s just like any other field.  Where an Electron can exist, there must be an Electron Field, or the Force of Electro-magnetism.  This makes an electron from out of nowhere, nowhere but the field.  If we’re lucky a Proton is formed up in this same way nearby and so the Electron and the Proton can come together more easily and thereby make up the ‘Atoms’.  Similar forces, we’ll talk about later combine to make the ‘Atoms’ join forces and become the molecules.  Some of these molecules join forces to become proteins. Some of these molecules join forces to become the DNA molecule which will become the basis of LIFE on the Earth and if I’m correct in my theory of life, DNA will be discovered as the basis of life all over the universe, not just on the Earth.

But, since the God Particle Field is everywhere, every known particle in the universe can be induced out of what is described as a ‘Condensate’ or a fancy way of saying a ‘Soup’.  The God Particle Field soup simply creates anything in the size and type of a sub-atomic particle at any time and at any place.  It does this by simply becoming ‘Excited’ at the point in Space/Time where it wants to give birth to such an object.  

Imagine, if you will, the ‘Excitement’ that must exist as you create the universe with one tiny bit after another.  In some places you need lots of bits, and in other places you don’t want any bits.  Instead, you may want only darkness and in other places you may want to create huge sources of light.

And this is how the Bible got it fairly correct when it says in the book of Genesis - “And God looked upon the darkness and said, ‘Let there be light’.  And then there was light all across the land.”

Actually, if God says anything at all to himself, he might be better described as saying - “And God looked upon the darkness and said, ‘Let there be the God Particle Field, wherein I can plant all of the seeds of a much larger realm.  And, there was a God Particle Field that came out of the nothingness and they shall call it The Big Bang.’”

And, who is this ‘They’ that God is predicting?  It’s us, of course, the human beings and of all other life forms that we know since we have evolved from earlier forms of life here on this planet.

The main point here is that all of the most basic building blocks of the universe are made seemingly at random.  In fact, for millions of years, human beings have looked at this kind of Creation as just random.  The Bible for example doesn’t explain why God made the world, just that he did it one day as a kind of random act.  All holy scripture from all the other age-old religions also imply the same kind of motivation for God creating the world.  He just did and we’re all stuck with what he did and we just have to ‘live with it’.

Today, however, because of our Scientific achievements, some of which I have described already, we are able to view almost the entire universe and we can readily see that there are millions of words we might use to describe this magnificent universe - but ‘Randomness’ is not one of them.

Everything we can see is the ultimate definition of order and beauty.

Most of us have seen the magnificent panorama of stars that make up our night sky.

         

What we see in the night sky is one spiral arm of our Milky way galaxy.  There are several arms and we are on one of the outside arms, nowhere near the center of the galaxy.  

That could be a good thing because we know that at the center of every galaxy is a Black Hole.

         
                             The Milky Way Galaxy

Our own galaxy is filled with about four hundred billion suns like our own, some bigger, some smaller.  Most of these suns, we believe, have at least one planet not unlike our own.  Also notice in the bottom of this picture another galaxy floating around nearby.  It’s the Andromeda Galaxy that is on a collision course with our own and due to collide into our own galaxy in about a billion years.  

There are also hundreds of billions of Galaxies out there that we know about each of them containing hundreds of billions of stars.

We must assume that even a small fraction of them will be found to have some form of life living on them because life itself can’t be a random event either.  Life is a form of beauty just as the stars and the galaxies are and this is why it’s impossible for me to conceive that the Creator would have all of this design going on in his head without more things like us peppering the heavens on a regular basis.


There are as many galaxies out there as there are stars in our own galaxy.  And we can only see a small percentage of them.

               

This is one square inch of the night sky where the Hubble Telescope took a time lapse photo of this tiny region in the night sky.  They found that everywhere they do this, there are billions upon billions of galaxies each with billions of stars inside.

BUT - there’s more.  Recently we’ve found strands of energy that connect all of the galaxies in the universe so that it looks like the following.
    
              

The human brain looks like the following.  Can you tell the difference?

                                    

The God Particle Field creates every single atom that is comprising these huge structures in the heavens that look and maybe even behave like the same mechanism in our own skulls - a Cosmic Consciousness.

You have to have a huge imagination to see in your mind what I am now describing to you.  And for you to do this, miraculously enough, your imagination actually has to grow into an area much larger than the universe itself in order to contain this concept.

There is no number large enough to measure the number of sub-atomic particles and atoms in the universe.  The number would have to be so close to infinity, you may as well use the concept of infinity.  The same thing can be said about the numbers of brain cells inside your skull.

So, the way that I express this concept is a number that I created to paint the picture for everyone of just how powerful this concept of the God Particle Field and how busy it must be to keep an infinite number of particles in place so that the universe can look and feel and act in the uniform and trusted way that it does for billions of years now and counting.

The number is Zero to the power of Infinity.  It looks like this:
                                                   
It is a new number that I created to help us all understand how to unite the force of Gravity with all the cousin forces that are still perceived to live in the Standard Model all alone without the partnership of the greatest force that we know and use every day to remain on this planet - Gravity.  It has to do with the concept of the size of our imaginations.  In physical measurements, our brains are only a few centimeters in diameter and yet, the way we use our brains, our imaginings can contain the entire universe.  Think about that for a minute.  

It simply means that a Zero can be the tiniest amount of Space/Time and it can take up the largest amount of Space/Time in the universe.  We only need to state where we are in our imaginations and the Zero Distance between all things becomes clearer.
The best way to explain this new number is to think about the force of Gravity.  You’ve got all the information you need to fully understand the most basic construction of our universe.  It’s all in the Standard Model chart that I am putting here again for you to look at once again.
The God Particle is placed in the middle of the Standard Model of Sub-atomic physics because it is the force that gives everything else in the universe - existence.

This time when you look at this chart that summarizes all the fundamental building blocks of the universe and all of the mortar that God uses to keep them in place - notice that the other major force of GRAVITY is missing.

Scientists don’t place Gravity here on this chart because they don’t have any evidence so far of a particle that would carry the force of Gravity that we are calling ‘Gravitons’.  But, I believe that gravitons may never be discovered as particles simply because the force they carry is so weak, yet stretches out so far into the Cosmos, keeping all of the largest stuff in place, the planets and the stars and the galaxies that the particle that carries this major force will remain hidden from discovery perhaps forever.  

Another way to put it is that gravitons are not like the other particles because they have to carry the force of gravity to such extreme distances, billions and billions of light years in distance.  Whereas, the sub-atomic particles that we have discovered like the Electrons, the Muons, the Gluons, etc. are only charged to cover distances far less than the thickness of a human hair.  It is this vast distance that Gravity must cover that we are forced to use this concept of infinity and zero all in one number.

This makes me think about Distance itself in a unique way.  Distance doesn’t really exist in the sense that we know it as living beings who have to cover distances every day in our scurrying about this tiny little piece of rock in the firmament of Space/Time.  As living creatures we interact with the property of ‘Distance’ as it is an objective fact.  But, for the particles that live in the sub-atomic world, there is no real distance, only probability of points in space which they will inhabit at different times.

Think about how different life would be if we were able to live like sub-atomic particles.  Instead of getting into our cars or trucks or buses or trains to get to work every day, we would simply think about the probability of being at work when we want to and then simply induce ourselves into our workplace and ‘Bingo’ we would simply appear at work or at play or at shopping.  There would be no concept of ‘Distance’ if we were able to live like sub-atomic particles.  And hold on to your hats, folks because some sub-atomic particles live just like that - with no regard to distance at all.  (Don’t worry this is coming in the next chapter.)

Because of the force of Gravity, however, we are not able to live like sub-atomic particles because at our level in the universe Gravity is more influential than the other three forces because the other forces don’t interact with this amount of mass.  We’re simply too bulky to be impacted by the other three forces in the universe that are designed to keep the atoms together and therefore can only work in extremely small distances.  Remember, I told you that the forces in Nature that we know about are all whacky and counter-intuitive.

And, this is where my new mathematical concept comes in handy.  There is really zero distance in the universe.  The illusion of distance is upheld by the force of Gravity.  Gravity is actually the force that stretches all matter out like super-putty so that living things can live and breathe and interact with other places in the ‘Super-Putty Universe.

For this to happen, the number that can handle the smallest distances in the universe, so small that they are merely points of probability in Space/Time and the other expression of distance that goes out past anything that we can see with our most advanced telescopes and observatories, would have to be infinite in smallness and bigness.  

This is Zero to the power of (i) or infinity.

                              

This number was suggested to me when I was studying a math problem and something I had never known before popped up in the calculations and that is that any number to the power of Zero is ONE.

Take the smallest number in the world - even minus numbers and multiply it to the power of Zero and it is assumed to be ONE.  Take the largest number in the world, multiply it to the power of Zero - and it is also assumed to be the number ‘1’.

ANY POSITIVE NUMBER no matter how large and it looks like this:

OR ANY NEGATIVE NUMBER NO MATTER HOW SMALL can look like . . .




OR 




5 to the power of Zero = 1

OR

5,000 to the power of Zero = 1

All numbers, large or small, positive or negative when raised to the power of Zero = 1

There is really very little difference between zero and one.  Another way to put it is that Zero can always lead you back to unity.  

Any number whether positive or negative, the largest number you can conceive or the smallest number you can conceive raised to the power of Zero all equal the same number of ‘1’.

Suddenly, it ht me - that if any number to the power of Zero always equals ONE - then Zero to the power of Infinity equals ANY NUMBER.  Expressed mathematically this way.
                                             
Zero to the power of Infinity EQUALS a Universal Set of Numbers - or ANY NUMBER no matter how large or how small the number.

This formula is what I call the Universal Constant and mathematically it means that the entire universe can be as big or as small as you would like.  

And if Einstein had this formula in place of his own Cosmological Constant I believe he would have proved his Unification Theory in that Gravity would now be placed into the Standard Model of Quantum Physics as one of the Four Forces, albeit it would be negligible still in all calculations for ‘mass’.  My Universal Constant is similar to water, the Universal Solvent - anything, any mass, any number can be dissolved into it or exploded out of it.

Of course, there is no largest or smallest number in the world, these things are infinite in both largeness and smallness.  Numbers can go to infinity and that means that zero can too.  But, now that we know that zero can also go to infinity, it means that the four forces can work over the largest and smallest spaces in their own missions of upholding the structure of the universe for us because all distance in the universe can be considered to be really Zero to Infinity.  It can be infinitely small distances or infinitely large distances, it all end up in the same place, and this is the so-called fabric of Space/Time that Einstein introduced us to by describing how one force - Gravity - shapes it like a sculptor making his pots.

Zero to the Power of Infinity equaling any number means that you can substitute any number for any place in the universe when you are calculating a place or a distance from one place o another.  The Beatles got it right.  Space/Time is a huge ‘Rubber Soul’.

I believe that this new concept will take some time to sink in for most of you.  It took me nearly all of my life.  It started in High School when I studied Euclidean Geometry and my books taught me how to calculate ‘the shortest distance between two points’ and how this was defined as a line between ‘A’ and ‘B’.  From there we are able to measure the sizes of everything in the universe or even the area or the volume of things.  And if you merely take these lessons in Euclidean Geometry on their face value, you will do well in your calculations.  But, later on in my life I started to think about the distance contained inside the ‘Two Points’.  

In other words, your little dot on the paper that is one of your points in your geometry, have size or distance.  They are so small that you can say that these distances are negligible and don’t have to be included in measuring say the distance between New York and Los Angeles, or the size of your windows.  However, the true distance to its greatest accuracy cannot be calculated because no matter how small you make the beginning point and the ending point of your two spots on the map, they will always have a size or distance.  It’s the size of your pen or your ink spot on the page.  You can get it down to the size of a sub-atomic particle and now you only have a point in Space/Time that is a probability.

Therefore, all distances between all things in the universe are only probable distances.  Nothing is absolutely tied to one another.  And, this is how and why my new number . . .

Zero to the power of Infinity
 works.

One more bit of information may make this concept of zero to the power of infinity come into focus for you.  I alluded to the way that the God Particle creates another particle in the universe a few pages back, but I left off the best part of how the God Particle Field makes matter come out of the zero distance of Space/Time.  

I think you’ll find it more than just interesting that the thinking machines that we have come to rely on in every aspect of our lives today, the computers, are designed to figure what to do based on zeros and ones.  As we all know, computers cannot count past the number ‘1’.  In computer thinking they know about ‘On’ a Zero and ‘Off’ a ‘1’.  This is known as the ‘Binary Code’ in which all computers are programmed.  That’s all they know about and they help us make it about in our world by simply counting how many things are on and how many things are off.

When you look at the sub-atomic world, every particle that we know is either ‘On’ or ‘Off’.  It’s either alive or dead, present or not present within the atom.  They turn ‘On’ and ‘Off’ based on their interactions with the God Particle Field.  

How does the God Particle field turn all of these parts of the atom ‘on’ and ‘off’, alive and non-alive in our world?

And this is the most interesting question that we can ask ourselves at this time.  

The Answer:

The God Particle merely gets things to resonate with it.  The resonating or vibrations of a particles wave energy is how all the basic building blocks of the universe come into being and how they stay ‘ON’ or ‘ALIVE’ in the physical world.  They are simply turned 'On' by the God Particle Field or turned 'Off' when no longer needed.  Their existence in this universe is binary, the same as all living things.

When they are turned on, all sub-atomic particles continue to hum in a musical pattern that remains perfectly vibrating to the note that they are supposed to sing.  Some particles might be singing in the key of ‘C’ and others are singing in the key of ‘G’.  Others still are vibrating to the key of ‘E’ or ‘F’ and some are even playing along as the Flats and Sharps of the musical notation.  The music notation of course is much more complex than our simple system of the octave or eight notes.  The universe is playing along in an orchestral performance that is unmatched anywhere.  It is purely in harmony with itself and with every living or non-living thing that the music creates.  

And, the more music that is playing in any given region of Space/Time, the more things are going to happen.  Galaxies will come into being where the music is strongest and empty Space/Time with zero distance will remain in place where there is very little music happening.  It’s no more complicated than that.  

Where the master composer has called for an Oboe, an Oboe will sound in perfect key and it will be part of the music.  Where there is a need for saxophones, saxophones will lean in.  Where the master composer has called for a violin or a sea of violins, the violins will resonate with the written music as it is told by the score and is placed on the music stands in front of them.  And the concert that was started thirteen or fourteen billion years ago is ongoing and is building in its crescendo and in its passion for life.  Can you hear it?

To the extent that some or any improvisation is allowed by any of the players in this concert, this will be discussed in the next chapter.

              


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